Philosophers of the Arabs
Abdolrahman Alkawakeby (1854-1902), a Syrian literate, one of the leaders of education and Arabic reform movement, and a famous lawyer and writer.
Alkawakeby was born in Halab, Syria, from a well known family. His
grand father from his mother was the responsible sheikh of
Alkawakeby started his career by writing in newspapers and was appointed as a writer in 'Alfurat' newspaper which was issued in Halab. Afterwards he issued by himself a newspaper titled 'Alshhbaa' on 1877 in order to be able to convey his thoughts. This magazine was the first newspaper in Arabic, but did not last for long due to his daring writings, and was halted by the Ottoman government. On 1879 he issued another newspaper titled "I'tidal" (moderateness) and continued the same way of writing; however it was shut after short time as well.
After closing of his second newspaper he turned to study in the
school of law and appointed in government as a member of the general
committees of treasury, and education. However, he left his position
and opened an office as a lawyer to defend people against power. Due
to his continual writings against authority and despotism he faced a
great deal of hindering and annoying relation with the government
during his work. As a result he left the country and traveled to
Alkawakeby left a wide range of literature some of his writings where still a hand script and lost upon his sudden death. His most famous book is 'the nature of despotism' (طبائع الاستبداد) where he presented an analysis of the state of despotism and its nature, asserting that despotism is the essential reason of backwardness.